Obscure Object of Desire: Chinese Contract Inglis Hi-Power

During World War II, the Canadian firm John Inglis & Co. manufactured approximately 150,000+ samples of the iconic FN Browning Hi-Power pistol. When the last batch in active service was declared to be surplus by the British military in the early 1990s, many of these fine pistols made their way to American shores. While most now reside in the safes of Hi-Power collectors, these excellent pistols do occasionally come up for sale and still represent a good value for the collector of WWII firearms.

A Brief History

The John Inglis Company was a former metal fabrication factory that had gone into receivership in 1936: a victim of both the Great Depression and the death of the two Inglis brothers who had run the company for many years. By 1938, the world was a powder keg, and the only thing missing was a spark. The allies were generally slow to acknowledge this reality, but they were begrudgingly making small some preparations.

One of Inglis’ abandoned factories was located on the western outskirts of Toronto. This factory drew the attention of an American-born businessman who had served in the Canadian military: Major James Hahn. He purchased the factory and the Inglis name, and quickly negotiated a contract to build 5,000 Mk 1 Stens for the British War office, as well as 7,000 for Canada.

With the contract came fresh capital for infrastructure. Inglis retooled the factory and started production of small arms in 1940. John Inglis & Co. became a major arms contractor, and included in its portfolio was the new state-of-the-art Browning Hi-Power. Even though Fabrique Nationale was in the hands of the Germans by 1940, FN’s chief designer, Dieudonné Saive, had managed to escape to England and was able to reproduce manufacturing drawings for the Hi-Power from a combination of his excellent memory and a few sample guns.

By 1943, Chiang Kai-Shek’s Nationalist Chinese Army was seeking to buy 180,000 Hi-Powers via the Mutual Aid Plan with Canada. The Chinese were familiar with the Mauser C96, and wanted their new Hi-Powers to be fitted with similar wooden stock/holsters and 500-meter Tangent sights. Inglis secured the contract, and production began in February of 1944. However, only 4,000 of these pistols were produced and delivered, and even that shipment initially only made it as far as India.

Apparently, most of these 4,000 pistols were eventually flown over the “hump” by American pilots and delivered to Chinese forces. Another 14,500 +/- Chinese contract pistols had been produced when the original contract was cancelled in September of 1944. All of these undelivered Chinese- contract pistols were accepted by the Canadian and British militaries, and were given a designation of “Pistol No 1 Mk 1” and “Pistol No 1 Mk 1*.”

The sample gun photographed for this article is from this batch of Chinese Contract pistols that was accepted into the Canadian military.

Once it was clear that World War II was ending, the Allies granted a new contract to China, and delivered roughly 40,000 +/-  Hi Powers to Chiang Kai-Shek’s Army. This contract was cancelled in the fall of 1945, once it became apparent that Mao’s Communist Forces were going to defeat the Nationalist Chinese Army.

All in all, Inglis produced a total of only 66,350 Chinese contract Hi Powers over an 18-month production span from February 1944 to October 1945. The most obvious way to identify these historically significant pistols is by the “CH” letters in the serial number.


Feature-wise, the Inglis Hi-Powers are remarkably similar to early FN-produced versions, but parts are often not interchangeable. They feature internal extractors and the half-moon scallop cut on the receiver. However, there are some variations amongst Inglis-produced models, most of which are beyond the scope of this article. For those seeking additional guidance on this topic, I highly recommend seeking out a copy of Clive M. Law’s excellent (but out of print) reference book “Inglis Diamond: The Canadian High Power.”

The Chinese contract pistols feature the 500-meter tangent rear sight, as mentioned above. While probably not the most useful feature, these sights are unique and add to the collector interest of this firearm.

The front sight is set in a dovetail, and is heavily staked to prevent movement.

The Chinese contract pistols feature a lanyard ring, and the back of the grip on the frame has been slotted vertically to accept the wooden “Holster C, No. 1 Mk1.” Also visible in the photo above is the unique look and texture of the hand grips.

Disassembly is traditional of the FN Hi-Power design: I have provided a disassembled view for reference.

Identification / Markings

These photos show the salient features of Chinese contract Inglis pistols made after Mid-June, 1944.  Again, the first four thousand pistols were roll-marked in Mandarin script, and those uber-rare pistols are worth more than conventionally-marked Inglis Hi-Powers. Nonetheless, the more common “CH” variant is shown below.

Starting with the right side of the pistol, we see three matching serial numbers: one on the barrel, one on the slide, and one on the frame. The sample pistol features the “CH” prefix, indicating that it was originally intended for shipment to China.   The serial number was applied at the Inglis factory after the pistol’s finish was applied, so that the numbers appear “in the white.” In this case, the fact that the finish covers the indentations left by the serial number indicates that this pistol has undergone at least one factory overhaul. The frame features the “Dominion of Canada Proof (DCP) Crossed Flags” marking. This is indication that the pistol was tested at the Inglis factory with over-pressured proof cartridges.

In this case, the barrel features the Canadian etched “crossed flags” proof mark, which is a shorthand version of the DCP proof mark. Note that a matching serial number sample is not an assurance of original parts: serial numbers were often added to replacement barrels as part of factory refurbishment programs.

Finally, one can see a partial “C-Broad Arrow” on the frame, just to the upper left of the DCP proof. This is an indication of the pistol’s provenance; it was property of the Canadian government. This mark was applied by Inglis at the time of manufacture, and is found even on the samples delivered to China.

Moving to the left side of the receiver, we can see that the pistol is marked “Mk. 1*” and “BROWNING-F.N. 9mm HP INGLIS CANADA,” as shown above. A small “C-Broad Arrow” acceptance mark is found on the left side of the trigger guard, also shown in the photo above.

A larger Canadian “C – Broad Arrow” can be found on this sample, just behind the slide serrations. This mark was applied by local level by Canadian military armorers, on orders of the Canadian Military Headquarters in London. In this case, the mark is located on the left side of the frame, just above the safety, but it can also be found on the right side of the slide. This sample pistol also features the later Mk II safety.

Most Inglis pistols do not have a serialized magazine. However, in 1950, Canada supplied 1,578 pistols to Belgium. These pistols were part of the first batch of Chinese contract produced in 1944, which had some reliability issues that were fixed in the later production. The reliability issues apparently had to do with the reverse-engineering and metric-to-English measurement changeover.

Since part of the problem was magazine feed, the Belgium armorers would find two magazines that worked with THAT pistol and numbered them. The pistols were gradually withdrawn from service and put into storage, and were replaced with new-production FN products. Most, if not all, of the Belgium Chinese contract pistols have been imported into the U.S., and collectors will pay a considerable premium for these rare variants.

The presence of the secondary C-broad arrow behind the serrations combined with the numbered magazine strongly suggests that this sample was one of the No. 1 (i.e. “Chinese model”) pistols which actually saw Canadian military service before being sent to Belgium in 1950.

No.1 MK I* production dates by serial number

Serial numbers on pistols for the Chinese contract used the letters ‘CH’, followed by a 4-digit number.

Feb. through May 1944         CH1              – CH1014
June 1944                                 CH1015       – CH8014
July 1944                                  CH8015       – 1CH0045
Aug. 1944                                 1CH0046     – 1CH6077
Sept. 1944                                1CH6078     – 1CH6099
Oct. 1944                                  1CH6100     – 1CH6576
June 1945                                 1CH6589     – 1CH7588
July  1945                                 1CH7589     – 2CH3588
Aug. through Oct.                   2CH3589     – 5CH9928

The serial number of this sample, “ICH3849” indicates manufacture in August of 1944. Note again that the first 4,000 Inglis Mk.1 No.1s are marked with Chinese characters. These rare pistols are worth more than double the price of pistols without the Chinese markings.

Wooden Holster/Stock

The original Chinese contract stocks were produced by Small Arms Limited (“S.A Ltd.”) of Long Branch, Canada. They are made out of walnut, and have been finished in a medium brown stain. Most of the original stocks are marked with the year of manufacture (1944 or 1945) under the “S.A. LTD” stamp:

The wood-to-medal finish on the original wooden holsters is quite good:

The photo above shows a close up view of the metal hinge, screws, and the “Made in Canada” mark. My understanding is that this mark is only found on samples that were imported into the United States.

The two photos above show the inside of the holster. Originals will feature wooden inserts that are a lighter color than the rest of the stock:

The top of the stock features a “Broad Arrow” with the number 17 set inside an oval:

Caution: There are many “reproduction” wooden holsters in circulation. These fake stocks will often have counterfeit markings intended to mimic the originals. In many cases, the fit and wood-to-medal finish is of poor quality, but some fakes are quite convincing. For example, Sarco sold repo stocks that featured the “S A LTD 1945” and “made in Canada” marks pressed into the wood, and reportedly, the fit and finish on these stocks was quite good.

The real S.A. Ltd. stocks were all made of walnut, whereas fakes are almost always made of some other species of hardwood. Again, the “real deal” stocks have lighter colored wooden inserts located on the inside of the holster. Another telling sign is the smell: real stocks have that old warehouse smell that is hard to describe but easy to recognize.


The correct magazine for the John Inglis pistols is marked “JI” on the front, as shown in the photo below:

The floorplate of the Inglis magazine has what is known a “split base,” which is also marked JI, as shown above.

The magazine’s follower is made out of aluminum:

As mentioned above, most Inglis magazines are not marked. However, certain pistols that were re-arsenaled in Belgium will have the pistol’s serial number heavily stamped into the magazine and base plate, as discussed above. The author’s sample has these marks, as shown above.


The provenance of the Chinese contract Inglis Hi-Powers makes them an interesting addition to any collection of WWII firearms. Given the relative scarcity of these fine pistols, they are still surprisingly affordable. Samples with the original stock can typically be found in the $1,500 to $2,000 range, but the prices will undoubtedly go up in the future. Additional interest is given to the fact that an original pistol/ stock combination is exempt from regulation under the NFA. Note, however, that this limited exemption does not apply if the stock is a reproduction.


  1. avatar Geoff PR says:

    “…wanted their new Hi Powers to be fitted with similar wooden stock/holsters and 500 meter Tangent sights.”

    Now that’s interesting.

    …That a 4-inch barrel in 9mm could even be considered effective at 500 meters.

    What do 9mm ballistics look like at 500 m?

    I suppose a sight like that could be useful in a survival situation, to make your enemy think you just might have more firepower than you actually have, to motivate him to not press the attack…

    1. avatar ColdNorth says:

      Good news! It’s a 4.7 inch barrel.

      (oh well, if nothing else, that means it isn’t prohibited in Canada)

    2. avatar strych9 says:

      Jerry Meculek hit a target at 1000 yards with a 9mm revolver using a 400 yard zero.

      If the drop chart created by that experiment is to be believed the round dropped ~200 inches at 500 yards.

      As for other data I don’t think anyone has it. At 1000 yards that round had slowed to 375fps. Other than that the only data I can find is out to 100 yards. 9mm Luger American Eagle (Federal) FMJ, 124gr hits 100 yards at 12.0311″ of drop, 959 fps and 253 ft/lbs of energy.

      1. avatar Capn Stefano says:

        Jerry M isn’t human

    3. avatar peirsonb says:

      The longest range ballistic table I could find stopped at 100 yards. Being the nerd I am I ran a best fit curve and extrapolated out to 500 yards….

      I came out with roughly 75 ft-lbs of energy. Somewhere between getting bonked on the head by a falling apple and getting hit with a slow pitch softball…..

      1. avatar Geoff PR says:

        Thanks for that, Mr. Pierson.

        Geeks of a feather flocking together, etc. 🙂

        (BREAKING, Drudge Report – The Russian ambassador to Turkey was just assassinated by someone yelling ‘Allahu Akbar’)

        1. avatar Geoff PR says:

          (strych9 beat me to it…)

      2. avatar FedUp says:

        Deer have been killed with 100ft-lb 9mm air rifles, probably 75 ft-lb target energy.

    4. avatar strych9 says:

      Based on the chart created by Miculek shooting a 9mm revolver 1000 yards the best answer I can give you is that the bullet should drop somewhere around 200 inches.


      1. avatar Tim says:

        Running the numbers, with the assumptions listed, via:


        looks to be about 264 feet.

        1. avatar strych9 says:

          At 1000 yards. Geoff asked about 500 yards.

          Based on the table you provide the drop would be about 43.25 (~511″)at 500 yards and it would be moving about 660ft/sec and have 120ft/lbs of energy. Thats interesting since it’s more than double the graph provided in the link I found about that shoot. Doubly interesting due to peirsonb’s calculation.

          I think this needs to be tested.

        2. avatar Tim says:

          (Replying to myself, since there’s apparently a limit to the comment levels!)

          @strych9, you’re correct. I misread the 500 vs 1000 yards. I’m guessing the difference is in Miculek’s revolver being zeroed at 400 yards, in which case we’re looking at 142 inches with slightly different assumptions. So, that’s the same ballpark!

        3. avatar strych9 says:

          No worries Tim. I misread things all the time.

          In fact, I owe Michael from GA an apology over a rather embarrassing misreading I perpetrated a few days back. I’ll have to do that next time I see a post of his.

    5. avatar Six Hour says:

      The new 9mm NATO ammunition by Winchester is almost the same as the commonwealth ball of this era (which I assume these Canadian hi-power sight plates were calibrated to). Easily enough to be lethal at 500 yards

  2. avatar pwrserge says:

    Meh… It’s a Hi-Power with a silly Mauser style stock. Compared to a WWI vintage 1911, it’s not really that interesting. What’s fascinating to me is that between the 1911A1 and the modern M9 series and its contemporaries, there were no significant advances in sidearms for a western nation’s military. When you think about it, the soldiers clearing Vietcong dugouts in Vietnam went in with a pistol that very well may have been issued to their grandfathers in Belleau Wood. In my opinion, there is very little that the Hi-Power did that the 1911 didn’t do better and it took a radical revolution in both firearm and bullet design to bring the 9mm in as a viable combat cartridge rather than a status symbol for officers. (Especially for a last ditch weapon such as a sidearm where if you ever use it, you need the guy you shot DRT.)

    1. avatar Anon in CT says:

      The Hi-Power is the bridge from the M1911 to pretty much every modern handgun. Although there might be a small accuracy penalty, eliminating the barrel bushing and consequentially more complicated disassembly was huge from a practical military standpoint. The radical increase in ammunition capacity is pretty significant too.

      The Hi-Power’s only fault is the stupid magazine disconnect.

      1. avatar pwrserge says:

        Meh… I can break down a 1911 almost as fast as I can break down a Glock. It’s THAT many extra parts. (2-3 to be exact) It’s a training issue, not an operational one.

      2. avatar cisco kike in says:

        If the magazine disconnect bothers you it can be removed in minutes. Something that in other modern pistols is not always possible with all models.

        1. avatar Anon in CT says:

          Trust me, it has been on my shooting gun, though my WW Inglis still has it. Though on the Israeli surplus Hi-Power it had been WELDED into place, probably to avoid Israeli having Israeli cops do it themselves. Gunsmith got it off no problem, but it was definitely beyond my own Youtube-guided efforts.

    2. avatar cisco kike in says:

      Quote:——————In my opinion, there is very little that the Hi-Power did that the 1911 didn’t do better and it took a radical revolution in both firearm and bullet design to bring the 9mm in as a viable combat cartridge rather than a status symbol for officers. (Especially for a last ditch weapon such as a sidearm where if you ever use it, you need the guy you shot DRT.)—————Quote.

      Sorry but you have got it completely backwards as few people actually have tested the 9×19, especially on live game. I found it to be superior to the .45 acp when shooting large White Tail Deer.

      1911 was a “dud round” as was proven many times. Blind patriotism will do it every time.

      First in the 1930’s Gangster era when the Police found out the dud .45 acp round would not even penetrate a car out of the much longer barreled Thompson Sub-Machine gun. Also in 1945 the American Army finally got around to giving the .45 acp cartridge a “real test” 34 years after its adoption and found to its horror what a worthless round the .45 acp really was as it bounced off of a military helmet at a scant 35 yards while the much superior 9×19 penetrated it at an astonishing 125 yards and might have penetrated it even further away but the skill of the pistol shooter and the accuracy of the 9mm Browning beyond 125 yards cancelled testing at longer ranges.

      Jan Libourel (gun writer) found out I his research the “Philippian war stories” about the .45 acp were pure bullshit dreamed up by prostitute gun writers after the war trying to sell more pistols for Colt. Jan found no military documentation what-so-ever that the .45 acp was a man-stopper and it did not knock men down or spin them around like a top or make them disappear in a red puff of mist. Ditto for the .45 long Colt used in that war either.

      In the 1980-s Pistolero Magazine went to Mexico to get around animal cruelty laws and found that when shooting pigs which have an autonomy much like humans (but are much better behaved) that the civilized pigs did not die any quicker when shot with the .45 acp as compared to the 9×19.

      The Chinese and the Europeans had got it right since 1908 when they one by one began adopting the 9×19 and later in 1911 totally rejected the .45 acp. It was and still is a worthless round when compared to the much superior 9×19.

      Also not well know is the fact that “real combat” WWII solders absolutely loathed and hated the 1911 because of its poor workmanship and accuracy as well as its heavy excess recoil much preferring the Browning High Power with its superior magazine capacity, low recoil and much, much superior accuracy especially at longer ranges because of its much superior flat shooting trajectory. The 9×19 was also much preferred in sub gun calibers as well and G.I.’s often used captured weapons in that caliber in both pistol and sub gun. The “High Power” was the most coveted weapon in WWII both by the Europeans, Americans, Chinese and even the Japanese who went to great lengths to capture as many Chinese Ingles Contract guns they could get their hands on, not the inaccurate, dude round .45 acp of the inaccurate, shoddily made 1911 pistol.

      As addendum: It was known as far back as 1900 when big game hunters switched from the huge caliber black powder weapons to small bore smokeless high velocity calibers such as the 6.5 mm, 7×57 and 303 British to name a few that they killed dangerous game much better than the huge black power calibers and they even killed better because of their superior penetration than some of the newer large caliber smokeless power rounds often called “elephant calibers” that suffered from the same problem of the huge black powder rounds i.e. not enough deep penetration to the vitals of dangerous animals.

      1. avatar Jay says:

        Huge wall of text filled with questionable conclusions, poor spelling and bad grammar. 2/10 Try again.

      2. avatar strych9 says:

        “First in the 1930’s Gangster era when the Police found out the dud .45 acp round would not even penetrate a car out of the much longer barreled Thompson Sub-Machine gun.”

        I find this bit hard to believe unless the car was up armored in some fashion.

        1. avatar cisco kid says:

          I also forgot to mention the piss poor penetration of the .45acp was also the reason Colt brought out the .38 super cartridge in its 1911 gun. Gangsters also preferred this cartridge for that very reason over the dud round .45 acp.

      3. Your religion is wordier, but no more correct.

        9mm had far inferior ballistics for a long time. And both can now be loaded to similar pressures, giving the .45 significantly more energy. It is true the smaller cross-sectional density of the 9mm offers certain advantages.

        I’ve almost never heard a WWII vet dis a 1911.

        At the end of the day, both are pistols, not primary combat arms.

    3. non-Singer 1911s aren’t that interesting.

    4. I own one of each.

      The Browning is far more interesting than just another 1911 with Colt markings.

  3. avatar gargoil says:

    you can see some detailed videos at http://www.forgettenweapons.com i actually just watched one on these the other day

  4. avatar Bryan says:

    500 meters! Kinda like a mortar path at that distance, yeah?

    1. avatar strych9 says:

      ~200″ of drop at that range out of a 9mm revolver. According to a test done my Jerry Miculek where he shot a target 1000 yards out.

  5. avatar Ragnarredbeard says:

    I have a Belgian Hi-Power with the tangent sights and slot cut in the frame. Near as I can tell, mine was not part of the Chinese contract runs.

  6. avatar strych9 says:

    In other gun related news today: Some Allahu Akbar chucklehead capped the Russian ambassador to Turkey today…

    Video of the shooting. Not real graphic but possibly NSFW.


  7. avatar Rick the Bear (now in NH!!) says:

    I bought one because it was wicked cool. It was some time later that I noticed the replacement Bomar barrel and the fiber optic front sight. 8~(

    Maybe someday I’ll get a more original style front sight and barrel.

    Until then, it’s still fun to own and shoot.

  8. avatar Dave Lewis says:

    During the warlord era (1920s and 30s) China was under at least a partial arms embargo and long guns were scarce for private armies. The warlords obtained Mauser C96s and full auto Spanish Mauser clones. They were light, handy, easily concealed and added a bad ass look to your retainers, much the same way an Uzi was the fashion accessory of the 70s. The Chinese Mausers and clones got long range sights because many people who are not shooters believe those sights make the gun shoot harder or farther. Again it was probably a status symbol thing.

    With a long barrel and a shoulder stock a decent shooter might get out to 100 yards with a C96. So why the long range sights on the Chinese Brownings? Probably because the old Chinese tradition said that 500 yard sights made the gun shoot 500 yards. The Browning box cannons (ie a gun that was carried inside a wooden box – the shoulder stock) had a great look and were another impressive piece of tactical jewelry.

  9. avatar matt says:

    I have one of these for sale. All original, one owner since 1952. Will go on CGN in August sometime.

  10. avatar Jan Libourel says:

    I note that my name is raised in a post by one “Cisco Kike” [sic]. Just to set the record straight, very, very few 1911 ,45 ACP pistols could have been used in any fighting in the Philippines simply because they only started to be issued to the troops about the time Mindanao had become more of less pacified. There were several spectacular stopping failures on Moros recorded with the M1909 cartridge (a .45 Long Colt with a slightly wider rim). It was no powerhouse: a 250-grain bullet at 725 fps. I am sure it was marginally better than the issue .38 Long Colt, a 150/785 load. Troops that had received .45 Colt Single Actions in the early years of the fighting in Mindanao would have been using the .45 Colt Government (a .45 S&W with a wider rim)–ballistics 230/725. Since fewer than 200 American troops lost their lives from enemy action during the 11 or so years of pacifying Mindanao and the adjacent islands, the number of deaths from “stopping failures” with any handgun must have been pretty minuscule. That’s about all I have to say on the subject!

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