The US Military’s Last Flintlock Pistol

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The concept of percussion ignition was invented in 1805 by a Scottish Reverend named Alexander Forsyth. English-born artist Joshua Shaw invented what we know as the percussion cap in 1822. Living in the United States, Shaw patented the cap in the US and not his native England to avoid legal action against him by Reverend Forsyth.

Despite the advances of percussion ignition in England and the United States, the US Military was still contracting single-shot flintlock pistols for another 14 years after the invention of the percussion cap; 20 years after the cap’s invention, in 1842, percussion ignition was finally adopted as the new service standard in the United States. Even so, military contracts for flintlocks continued to be filled for two more years.

This timeline means that the Model 1836 pistol was the last flintlock design to be officially issued to American troops.

Weighing in at two pounds, 10 ounces, the .54 caliber pistols fired a lead ball weighing half an ounce, propelled by 50 grains of blackpowder. The two main contracts for the guns were fulfilled by firms run by Robert Johnson and Asa Waters, both based in New England (Connecticut and Massachusetts, respectively).

Johnson’s contract began in March 1840 with a five-year order for 15,000 pistols. Priced at $7.50 each, Johnson agreed to make 3,000 pistols each year. His firm was a natural choice because it had previously produced 3,000 Model 1836s in the second half of 1836 and first half of 1837. That contract had a price of $9.00 per gun.

Asa Waters was the son of a Revolutionary War gunsmith. He learned the trade from his father, whose factory is reputed to be the first to use water power to make arms. His contract began in February 1840 and was for the exact same amount and price point as Johnson’s.

The Model 1836s were obviously a successful design. Despite their size and weight, it was universally held that these guns balanced well and were of superb manufacture. It is because of this (and the military’s slow embrace of the percussion system) that the Mexican-American War was fought with flintlock weapons. It wasn’t until 1848 that the government armories did an inspection of their weapons and ordered all serviceable pieces to be converted to percussion. Many of the Model 1836s would later be converted to percussion in 1850. Some of those guns even saw use in the early stages of the Civil War in 1861.

Because of the transition period, Model 1836 pistols hold a special place in military history. They signal the end of one era and the beginning of another. The mechanism that was used to win the Revolutionary War was on its way out. A new form of ignition would go on to be used in the Civil War.

It’s still possible to find these Model 1836s at gun shows, but most of the examples are percussion conversions. Flintlock specimens still exist, but they’re harder to come by and command a premium over their percussion siblings.

Logan Metesh is a firearms historian and consultant who runs High Caliber History LLC. Click here for a free 3-page download with tips about caring for your antique and collectible firearms.


  1. avatar bawb says:

    Would have been funny if it was in like 1972 for some reason.

    1. avatar SD3 says:

      Stil w-a-a-y-y more comfortable than a glock.

      1. avatar Ralph says:

        What’s with the trigger on a Glock ???

        1. avatar bawb says:

          Neither double- nor single-action. Kindof 1.1x-action.

      2. avatar bawb says:

        Yeah, but, you know, a mostly solid wood grip can be any shape, whereas a grip with a bullet-hose running through the middle has to be somewhat straight.

  2. avatar jwm says:

    I see this and I get an urge to have 2 in my belt with a cutlass and boarding ax ready to go.

    1. avatar passthebrass says:

      Dont forget the Blunderbus!

    2. avatar Tom says:

      Now I have an urge to play Assassin’s Creed Black Flag.

    3. avatar BLoving says:

      Cutlass? Check.
      Boarding axe? Check.
      Flask of spiced rum? Check.
      Brace of flintlock pistols? Check.
      (Sneaks up on wife relaxing in the tub)
      “Aaargh, ye scurvy wench! Heave to and prepare to be boarded!!!”

  3. avatar Tom in Oregon says:

    I gotta quit reading some of these history posts… Yet another gun to add to my want list. (The flintlock version)

    1. avatar jwm says:

      Considering it’s a mass produced service issue weapon it looks pretty sweet. I wouldn’t mind one of those in either flint or cap lock.

      1. avatar BDub says:

        Weapons of War have no place in civilian hands! /s

        Great article, btw!

    2. avatar Eric in Oregon says:

      Amen to that, great looking pistol there.

  4. avatar Mr. Woodcock says:

    If Killery wins we won’t even be able to own one of these.

    1. avatar jwtaylor says:

      No matter who wins I’ll still own everything I’ve got. And I’ll still get more.

      1. avatar Joe R. says:

        ^ This.

        This is my rifle, there are man like it, and one day, I will have them too.

        ; )

      2. avatar Mr. Woodcock says:

        Agree with the first part. Second part….not so much if Hildebeast gets in. Hard to buy things that are banned. Remember the Clinton AWB in ’94? Imagine that but a lot worse. Let’s hope none of that never comes true. #votesmeansomething

    2. avatar John L. says:

      Because they would ve banned, or because all of your savings would be “redistributed” to the “less fortunate”?

    3. avatar Naz says:

      Speaking of Killary, I bought my first AR-15 today, I now have 3 rifles, 6 shotguns and 23 pistols. I have no use for it other than the coming weapons band with Hillary packing the court with liberal judges it might be a good investment if the Feds don’t seize them.

      1. avatar Mr. Woodcock says:

        Congrats on the AR 15. They are loads of fun to shoot…..and progtards hate them.

  5. avatar jwtaylor says:

    Building a .54 caliber smoothbore saddle flintlock myself. Love me some flinters.

    1. avatar BLoving says:

      *fwoosh* BOOM! A puff of white smoke in your face and a VERY big hole appears in the target. Those who haven’t experienced it have a hard time understanding sometimes…

  6. avatar Geoff PR says:

    9 bucks a pistol.

    What does that calculate out to in today’s dollars?

    1. avatar Geoff PR says:

      Found it – $237.01.

      That’s about what a cheap derringer can run today…

    2. avatar SD3 says:


      1. avatar Geoff PR says:

        Now I know never to use that inflation calculator again.

        Still, $850 is what a good quality handgun can cost today.

        It’s interesting in what some stuff costs today after inflation…

  7. avatar Ralph says:

    These firearms history articles are great!

    1. avatar Geoff PR says:

      Yeah, but you were there when it was known as ‘current events’… 🙂

      1. avatar Joe R. says:

        HAH HAH hAHAHA. . .. true : (

  8. avatar Joe R. says:

    Charles Carroll of Carrolton [wiki’s “youngest signer of the Declaration of Independence” Died at age 95, on Nov. 14, 1832] would have considered this the go-to weapon (dependable, not doubtful-in-operation like those damn new-fangled percussion cap firearms) for killing every swinging johnson that a government could throw at you.

    1. avatar Geoff PR says:

      “…killing every swinging johnson that a government could throw at you.”

      Yeah, but only one at a time and they need to spot you a minuet each to re-load…

      1. avatar jwm says:

        What’s a musical piece got to do with reloading your flintlock?

  9. avatar jsallison says:

    My dad had one of those of the percussion conversion sort, stolen after I left to join the circus, err, army.

  10. The grip angle on that gun sucks! It won’t point naturally. I’ll stick to my GLOCK.

    1. avatar Logan Metesh says:

      Have you ever held one? They actually point quite well.

      1. Yeah, sarcasm. I’m the guy arguing with the entire internet about the myth of the unusable grip angle of the GLOCK.

  11. avatar PeterK says:

    2lbs? Meh. I’d still EDC that. Looks awesome. Doubles as a club with that sweet buttplate on the bottom of the grip.

    1. avatar PeterK says:

      Seriously, though. The more I see it, the more beautiful it is to me. Very cool design.

  12. avatar JT Alden says:

    Attention: Logan Metesh – Author

    Your article contains some data that is historically incorrect.
    First, you stated the request for the US military conversion to Percussion,
    came about in 1848.
    This is not true.. The Ordnance Department actually made the conversion request, as early as 1842. The Robert Johnson Company was a US military contractor & quickly began converting their 1836 Flintlock Pistol, to the new Percussion system.
    Second, you also mentioned the Mexican-America War was therefore fought with Flintlock weapons. This is only Half-True….Regarding Muskets, this was correct. The Flintlock Musket was still the standard issue long-arm. However, US troops were supplied with Percussion Pistols. In fact, Commander Zachary Taylor did not even order pistol flints from the Ordnance Department, only Percussion Caps,..for his new, high-tech Percussion Pistols. Anyway, I enjoyed your article….I just wanted to share some updated information.

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