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Kejuan Raye

Chicago Police have shot and killed three suspects in the past week. The latest incident happened Wednesday evening in Englewood, where a police sergeant stopped two men, one of whom matched the suspect description in a battery complaint. Suspect Kajuan Rayes and his buddy took off on foot, running in separate directions to evade the officer help the officer find the true suspect. The sergeant pursued Kajuan and during the foot chase, police say the young man pointed a gun at the officer. Twice. Shots were fired and Kajuan ended up dead, but police found no weapon.

Now the family is trying the officer in the court of public opinion.

Kajuan Raye
Karonisha Ramsey, mother of Kajuan Raye, spoke briefly at a vigil near the spot where her son was shot and killed Wednesday night by a Chicago police officer. Also there was her son’s cousin, Ahkeya White (at right, in red sweatshirt), who said references in the media to Raye’s criminal record did not tell the whole story of his life. | Andy Grimm/Sun-Times | Sun-Times photo and caption.

In statements to the media. the family described Mr. Raye to anyone who would listen as a ‘fun-loving and happy kid’ who had a ‘bright future’ ahead of him. They said that while he no longer attended high school, he was going to get his GED and become a veterinarian. How did they know? Because he loved dogs and watched Animal Planet all the time.

His family says the teen did nothing wrong. His cousin says he didn’t have a gun. The family provided a couple of pictures to the media, including one of Kajuan in a tux.


They neglected to share some photos from social media accounts.





And then there’s the video found on Facebook of Kajuan rapping about always packing his heater and his gang lifestyle: “Always fu@king pistol packing…if I got it….then it’s crackin”.

Posted by Chicago Code BLUE on Friday, November 25, 2016

And yet his cousin says he never had a gun. It’s possible that dollar signs may be part of the reason for the family’s ambulance-chasing land shark’s pledge to get justice for the aspiring veterinarian Kajuan.

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  1. Did he have a gun when he was shot? Was he stupid for running from the cop? Yes. Did he think making pointing gestures at a pursueing cop was a smart idea even though he had no gun? Don’t know.

    This is one of those cases of being stupid, with stupid people and doing stupid things. Whether he deserved to be shot or not, he was at least an accessory to his own killing.

    Any riots break out I hope it’s in his neighborhood.

    • While he was obviously a gang bangers and probably owned several illegal guns at home. The thing is, if they didn’t find a gun on him or anywhere around the area, then he most likely was not armed when he was killed. Kinda a no brainer there, isn’t it? Maybe the officer just killed him because the cop was having to chase after him. If that is the case that shit ain’t right.

      • Since you are such a genius (and so eloquent), answer this question: If you were moving into a new arena and the entire NYC and NJ press corps was attending a media tour of your new building, would you make sure that you had a warm body present to promote your product?If you don’t agree then you are a numb scull- better yet, your brain is numb. You are CLUELESS about PR, the media and marketing.

  2. After he became a veterinarian, he was going to be an astronaut, then cure cancer, and then establish world peace, and then find time to get his GED.

    The cop who shot him should have recognized that poor Kajuan (WTF?) wasn’t reaching inside his pants for a gun. He was reaching inside his pants for the King James Bible that he always carried on his person, especially when he healed the lepers on Saturday night. Because of Kajuan, there isn’t a single leper left in Chicago.

    Due to the officer’s poor eyesight and lack of judgment, the light of the world has been extinguished. How will we ever go on? How will we ever go on?

    Not to worry. There are thousands of Kajuan’s lined up and ready to heal the sick and raise the dead.

  3. While I have NO problem with cops (in Chiraq)shooting gangbanger boys I do think they are awfully quick to clear leather. And oddly most of this deadly encounter is on video except the shooting. And no gun has been found(what no crime gun officer?). In no way do I cheer anything done by the extremely corrupt Chicago police OR believe Kajuan’s peeps. Having seen,heard and lived in Chicago I continually marvel there aren’t riots every week…

  4. Ol’ Kyjuan already has arthritis in his hands too. And let’s not forget his multitude of arrests. But he LOVED to play basketball and his pit bull. By the way, where did he get those $100 bills? With no job, no education and a sleep till noon and raise hell till daybreak lifestyle, what did anyone expect from this turd?

    Become a veterinarian? I bet he and his family couldn’t even spell it.

    • I used to work in a liquor store years ago in a Chicago suburb in a bad neighborhood. What a lot of these kids will do is put a $100 bill in front of a stack of $1 bills to make it look like they had a bunch of money. It was pretty funny watching them open their wallets and seeing that.

      • When I was a kid, I didn’t have any $100 bills to put in front of anything. A poor boy with a hundred dollar bill isn’t so poor.

  5. If they can’t find the gun, then the cop needs to spend the rest of his life in gen pop at the Illinois State Penitentiary.

    Since the cop is a public “servant” (sic) public opinion should count in judging his behavior. At the very least since he killed someone while on the job, he should lose his job and any accrued pension funds. Government employees should face penalties for killing citizens, no matter how justified.

    • Oh really?

      Cops should face penalties for justified shootings in self defense?

      Why are police officers any less entitled to defend their lives than we are? They’re citizens, too. The Bill of Rights protects them, too.

      • No gun was found (per the above report). This is a problem.

        If he had a cell phone and pointed it at him, or made the finger gun, or a Mars bar that made the officer think he had a gun, it’s a different story. Body cam footage would help in this case immensely.

        I’m not saying young Kajuan was a pillar of society. Nor am I saying LEO should get carte blanche (I have family that are LEO) to shoot at will. It just seems awfully unjustified based on the report above. Once again, once all the info/facts are available we’ll have a better idea.

        • + 1 for Body Cam footage. If the young man is seen with a gun, it’s pretty much all said and done.

          – 1 for stating that ‘no gun = conviction of officer’. That makes no sense. But with no gun and no footage, an investigation would probably make sense.

          Another thought – Instead of subsidizing immigrants who come here illegally, perhaps we should be investing some of that money into young urban youth – you know, American citizens – to help keep kids like this out of gangs, maybe give them an interest-free 10 year deferred loan for some education, a technical degree/cert of some sort? In another world, this young guy might have actually been able to get a cert to be a Vet assistant, on his way to becoming a Vet some day, etc. This in no way excuses his behavior. And his parents are obviously a major part of the problem too. But to say this isn’t a problem for all of us would not be correct.

          I’m sure we could do a better job of taking care of our Veterans too. But the DemoRats just want to shelter illegals in their cesspool cities for their votes instead. All at our expense.

        • “Instead of subsidizing immigrants who come here illegally, perhaps we should be investing some of that money into young urban youth – you know, American citizens – to help keep kids like this out of gangs, maybe give them an interest-free 10 year deferred loan for some education, a technical degree/cert of some sort?”

          As a nation we’ve subsidize black people with billions of dollars and what do we get. Gangsters, rap music, plan parenthood infanticide of black babies (sponsored by and fully funded by democrats), murder of black youth, incarceration of black men, special consideration in college admissions (low scores), midnight basketball, black admission quotas for military, the list is endless. None of which advances the improvement of the black race.

          Just as American crushed American Indians, the end is near for the Black race in America, it’s by design and the slimy vile democrats are responsible…I hate them more everyday.

        • Mk1008
          Your post in no way reflects the opinions of most gun owners here and you make us look bad in contrast. Fuck off,
          The rest of us

        • “Your post in no way reflects the opinions of most gun owners here and you make us look bad in contrast. Fuck off,
          The rest of us”

          Well Dm, if you look deep enough, those are facts and if it makes other gun own owners “look” bad then grab your ball and bag and head home. Gun owners are the last Americans with individual sovereignty in which various state legislatures are working to deny their liberties. It is the failure of democrat polices, that leads to deconstruction of black families, the false empowerment a gun presents to a young black man, the pain of black mothers and sisters. The last thing standing in the way of total collapse of the black race is removal of armaments from law abiding black people. Strong black families of the 50’s, herded into enclaves by banks, systematically removing their wealth and creating democratic cities, who’s only leadership is taking federal monies for themselves and giving their people room to destroy.

      • To YZAS:

        Not saying the officer should be charged if there is no gun found. I agree that the investigation will answer the questions.

        I’m saying that if no gun is found, or anything that looks like a gun in the heat of the moment (and this is where the body cam footage will help), that LEO should be held to the same standard as those with CHL. I acknowledge that LEO have a duty to persue those running from crime/crime scenes, something we as CHL/LTC/CCW holders do not, but to shoot/kill someone running from said LEO without justifible reason requires appropriate judicial response. Which we both know would definitely happen to us civilians if we did the same.

        +10000000000000000000E100 to your other points.

    • public opinion should count in judging his behavior

      If Chicago has a “Chicago’s Favorite Cop” contest, maybe, but not when it comes to criminal charges.

      • “public opinion should count in judging his behavior”

        This is what Mosby, the state’s attorney, wanted with the 6 police officers. They chose bench trials with a judge and she was wasn’t happy.

        Perhaps facts should count on in judging his behavior?

    • I would like to see GSR testing on his hands esp if this was a shots fired call. That said I’m inclined to have a suspicion that the gun was picked up to cover his ass or because a banger liked a free gun.

    • Strong investigative skills there buddy. Also strong knowledge of the justification of force.

      By “strong” I mean “strong dumbass”

    • Chris:

      Do you really think government employees defending their own lives or those of a third party “should face penalties for killing citizens, no matter how justified”?

      Wow. That’s a pretty radical point of view.


    • Since cops are just ordinary citizens and there should be penalties for shooting someone regardless of justification then I guess there should be penalties when an armed citizen has a DGU.

      You are just a honky with gangbangwr envy.

  6. 600K died 150 years ago to free a race and this is the best black culture aspires to be? Freedom of expression is not the measure of one’s character. As Black population winds down, democrats prepare their next victims, Mexicans and Muslims.

      • Indirectly it most certainly did. One of the biggest political issues of the day was whether slavery would be allowed to extend to the new western territories and the push by northern abolitionists to end the practice altogether. The South correctly perceived this as not just a threat to the culture of the South, but to its economic survival. The South further felt that the federal government had no right to tell the states what they could or could not do with respect to that question, and vehemently objected to the feds attempting to prevent the “will of the people” determining whether slavery would expand or be limited to those areas where it currently existed. When coupled with the North’s economic power based on its industrial capacity, and the South’s dependence on those markets for its cotton, the South perceived that the policies of the majority in the federal government and the election of Lincoln were an existential threat that demanded secession. To put it another way, the issue of states’ rights was inextricably tied up with the question of slavery.

        • The most mind-boggling of the concession of the north was the 3/5 rule. The South demanded slave populations be counted for the house of representatives to get equal representation (as compared to the North) in Congress, yet declared slaves property which claimed the Federal Government had no say in how slaves were treated. This consolidated power in a handful of men in southern states, who had no intention of diversifying the economy away from cotton.

        • In March 1861, the Confederate Vice President Stevens made the famous “corner stone speech.”

          “Our new government is founded upon exactly the opposite idea; its foundations are laid, its corner- stone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery subordination to the superior race is his natural and normal condition. This, our new government, is the first, in the history of the world, based upon this great physical, philosophical, and moral truth.”

          Yea, it was about slavery. Keep up In mind the issue of abortion today. It inflames emotions, nobody is really willing to change their stands and there have been killings on both sides. That’s what the slavery issue was in 1860.

        • > The most mind-boggling of the concession of the north was the 3/5 rule.

          What’s mind-boggling about it? It was the only way for the slave states to agree to be a part of the Union. And at that point, issues of national security made it a necessity for all states to stay together.

        • And sown the seeds to the civil and Jim Crow laws retaining white power base in southern states requiring 100 years later the civil rights movement. Same democrats holding the black race down for 150 years, is ignoring Federal immigration laws in order to keep federal student attendance money for school unions, and state medicaid money.

      • “Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery– the greatest material interest of the world. Its labor supplies the product which constitutes by far the largest and most important portions of commerce of the earth. These products are peculiar to the climate verging on the tropical regions, and by an imperious law of nature, none but the black race can bear exposure to the tropical sun. These products have become necessities of the world, and a blow at slavery is a blow at commerce and civilization. That blow has been long aimed at the institution, and was at the point of reaching its consummation. There was no choice left us but submission to the mandates of abolition, or a dissolution of the Union, whose principles had been subverted to work out our ruin.”

        – A Declaration of the Immediate Causes which Induce and Justify the Secession of the State of Mississippi from the Federal Union

      • Of course the civil war was about slavery. Confederate Vice President Stephens on March 21, 1861, before a shot had been fired, gave his famous cornerstone speech, which included this:

        “Our new government is founded upon exactly the opposite idea; its foundations are laid, its corner- stone rests upon the great truth, that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery — subordination to the superior race — is his natural and normal condition. [Applause.] This, our new government, is the first, in the history of the world, based upon this great physical, philosophical, and moral truth.”

        And, ask yourself this: Why did the southern states secede BEFORE Lincoln took office?

  7. Yah sure just another good kid on the way to his prom all dressed up in his Tux.
    Not the gang banger with guns on Facebook. That’s not him.
    The media has to be right that’s what his mommy and the media says he is.
    Just another innocent kid that the cops shot for no good reason.

  8. While it’s true his criminal record doesn’t tell the full story of his life, this talk about a hypothetical GED and veterinary career doesn’t tell any part of his life story. I certainly hope that when my time comes, my family won’t have to resort to pure fantasy to find good things to say about me.

  9. Play stupid thuggish games, win stupid prices. Another wanna-be-thug who won’t be reproducing. The Darwin Effect at work.

    And by the way, a 19-year-old IS *NOT* A FREAKING “TEEN!” He was old enough to vote and do the I-wanna-be-a-thug crap, so stop calling them “teens.”

    • I sometimes think that all the effort that parents will ever put into their child is used up thinking of a ‘creative’ name.

      • That’s the funniest thing I’ve read all week! Hahahahaha!! The only funnier thing is that real Igbo generally name themselves things like Jonathan, Mary, Samuel, Sarah…

      • Occasionally you see exposes or studies that show that employers tend to favor ‘white’ or ‘neutral’ names over obviously black ones. And that’s wrong and all, but we should mention that this has been known for decades, and black families are still saddling their kids with names that will make it harder for them to get a job. What does that tell us?

        Identity and tribalism is more important to some people than success.

  10. At some point one has to say, I understand, but I just don’t care another black man was shot and killed when complying with LEO’s would prevent it. Then the lie who he was and what he aspired to be continues the myth Black Lives Matter. Truth is none of our lives matter, it’s what we do with our lives that is the measure. Kajuan despite knowing the odds made his choice, lived a lie until a bullet entered him, truth revealed itself as he bled out. Remarkable where opportunity presents if one works for it, but alas only the poverty pimps benefit using his corpse.

  11. There should be fines associated with presenting false “evidence” to the media. And there should be fines to the media for repeatedly fabricating false narratives whenever these types of shootings occur.

  12. I understood some of the words he used in that video however I wasn’t able to assemble them into a coherent sentence in my mind. Something about “rocks” and “bitches”.

    Anyways looks like a fine upstanding young man from a great family that places and emphasis on education and strong morals. Surely this gentleman was not a product of a garbage culture that encourages violence, single motherhood, promiscuity and crime.

    Why I can’t see a single reason not to want to live next to Kajuan and his fine family.

    • “who said references in the media to Raye’s criminal record did not tell the whole story of his life.”

      Actually it literally IS an account of your life story.

  13. These sympathetic media portrayals are one of the many reasons Trump won. And yes the city is going to pay out; good thing they raised property taxes.

  14. I’m guessing Mom was making excuses for him in life, just as she is in death – instead of teaching him that all actions have consequences and he has a responsibility to himself, his family and his community (and heck, could even throw God in there if you want) to behave as an adult and work hard to become something good in life. She probably thinks she is/was doing him a service, but it was only a disservice, and a major contributing factor to him being where he is today. And Dad is MIA apparently. Another life wasted. And it aint gonna be all sunshine and rainbows for the cop that shot him either (and that’s even presuming it was a righteous shoot).

  15. Let’s see, he is not in school, going to get his ged and wants to be a vet. Vet schools are not only expensive they are very very selective. One needs an undergraduate degree in hard science, excellent references and a 3.9 out of 4 gpa might get you some consideration. I’m guessing kajuan would not have the resume to be accepted anywhere.

    • It doesn’t matter now. Just like ‘aspiring basketball players’ the only thing that matters is intent. And really, not even that… all that matters is that the family remembers one time the decedent said he wanted to be something, that’s good enough- print it!

  16. 1. Stupid is often its own reward.

    2. The cop should be judged the same as a CHL holder, as far as the shoot.

    3. If it’s determined that the body cam was actually turned off just before the shooting, fine the cop a month’s salary.

    4. Skin color is irrelevant.

    5. If those are real guns in the pics, wasn’t he already a criminal?

  17. I learned a long time ago not to believe a word the police say especially when it was a shooting of an unarmed person. The story you get through the media and police department is usually not accurate as per the actual event. If police did something wrong of course they will completely lie or massage the story with fancy phrases and words to make it sound like nothing wrong occurred. I won’t believe 100% of the story until I see a video for myself.

    Be honest with yourself. Police don’t want to go to jail or lose their jobs just as much as anyone else. They do make mistakes and they have a brotherhood/union that will protect them when they do. You shouldn’t believe them any more than you would believe the suspect.

    Even if the teen was a bad person, and had even worse parents, he might have been unarmed and harmlessly running away in that moment in time. Therefore you shouldn’t blame the teen for his pictures and videos as that wasn’t when he was shot. You can’t kill someone unjustly then go back and create a negative/damning narrative for the public against the suspect/victim to mask what actually happened.

    I will take actual evidence over bias story telling.

    • If we’re going to assume the cops are ‘making shit up’, then they would have found a gun about an hour after the story hit the press. the fact that they did not actually lends more credibility to the police statement, but that certainly doesn’t mean it was a good shoot.

  18. With my wife in veterinary school I find it difficult to believe that a GED would get you into vet school. I’m not saying it couldn’t be done but Holy Hanna would that be an uphill battle. You’d be very, very far behind on your sciences and you’d have to manage a straight 4.0 in undergraduate studies to even have a chance at acceptance once the admissions board saw that you only had a GED. (I’m not seeing a person with a GED generally starting college with Calc 1 or higher.) And that’s just for starters.

    Just to get into undergrad these days requires some fairly significant “extra curricular activities” and then there’s the vet school requirements. My wife’s vet school required good grades in high school, extra curricular activities going back to like 15 years old, good grades in under grad in a biochemistry, biology or zoology or animal sciences (nutrition track only) major, an amazing GRE score and 1400 hours of animal based volunteer work as a minimum to even be considered for admission. After that it’s a fight between you and everyone else in the top 3% of those undergrad programs for who has the mostest and bestest grades, extras, letters of rec, test scores, relevant real world experience etc.

    Your math, writing and reading proficiency have to be top-fucking-notch or that GRE score is gonna kill you. By itself that’s an exam you can expect to spend 1000 hours studying for these days because grad school entrance exams are now weaponized due to classes and books to prep you for the exam.

    Jesus would that kid have been behind the 8 ball.

    Hey, at least in his pictures he had good trigger discipline!

    • You’re assuming Kedead was going to apply to a top tier school like your wife did. What if he went to the Tijuana School for Vets and Tire Change Specialists?

      He could have been giving back to the community in 3-4 weeks.

      • I have no idea what the requirements are in Mexico for getting through vet school.

        I do know that in Costa Rica it’s damn hard. Of course Costa Rica is probably the nicest country in all of Central or South America because it has high standards for everything… so there is that.

        In the US no vet school just lets people in. Sure there are tiers of schools and the lower ones have lesser requirements but no vet program is going to look favorably on a GED and little to no animal based extras and no useful letters of recommendation.

        • Ask your wife, as I understand it, it’s harder to get into a top-tier veterinarian school than it is to get into medical school…

        • It’s harder to get into most vet schools than it is a similar tier medical school because diagnosis is all diagnostic and experience driven since your patient can’t talk and patients vary so much from species to species whereas doctors usually have talking patients and only deal with one species.

    • Strych9 tells it like it is. Flushes the bullshit with a fire hose. The idea sold by democrats that all people deserve success without doing the heavy lift of work.

      We are witness to a dying race, preventable perhaps, but not by the helping hand of government.

  19. Help me out here, guys: I can’t quite tell (pics are all too low-res), but it looks to me like he’s one of about five bangers (well, four now, probably two by the time I hit submit on this comment) who actually understands the concept of trigger discipline. I THINK (again, not certain) that I’m seeing his finger off the trigger in all the photos where he’s brandishing a gun at the camera. Anyone wanna weigh in?

    • I noted that and have commented on it.

      When I was living in bad neighborhoods some idiot blasting themself, sometimes into the next life, wasn’t common but it wasn’t terribly unusual either. Maybe thugs have learned from that.

      “Did you hear about Jamal?

      “Yeah, homeslice shot himself in the fucking face brah! Trigger discipline homie! Those white guys know a thing or two about heaters and how not to fuck yourself up with one! You wanna hit this chronic-bubonic dawg? White Owls roll up the best!”

  20. At least the young outstanding citizen , had
    The decency not to ghetto aim in all his pictures. Maybe he knew by trial and error that you can’t hit crap aiming side ways. It’s a shame he was killed before vetenerian school because I’m sure he would of volunteered his services to cats and dogs for free. RIP kejuan

  21. Maybe the reason that the CPD is quick on the trigger is because there isn’t much difference between the South and West sides and Mogadishu.

  22. Even in the picture of the press conference there is a crime happening – very clearly a stolen stop sign being held up. Hope nobody gets in an accident at that intersection it came from

    Speaking about an intersection could anyone make out the one that they were hanging out in on the rap video? Remind me to give that park a wide berth.

  23. Just us for the dead perp, not justice.

    Live long enough and you see anything. Twice or three times even. When do the BLM riots start?

    • With Trump stepping into the white house and picking folks for slots like AG the blm folk need to figure out another way, other than rioting, to get their message across.

      • Never in the history of this country has a group of people, supported by this government, squandered success and embrace at every opportunity city leadership gives to destroy their communities.

        • I don’t think the average black person squandered anything. I don’t believe the billions in federal funding ever made it to the areas it was meant for. I’m willing to bet that the lion’s share of that money was swept up by corrupt .gov people and black leaders like Jesse Jackson.

  24. Black Fathers Matter.

    Clearly Kyjuan’s “daddy” was nothing more than a sperm donor. And his momma? She was the recepticle.

  25. Okay, in the picture of the with the two guys wearing red hoodies, where one is flashing a piece and the other is holding a phone, what gun is he holding. Just judging from the barrel and what I can see of the cylinder, it looks almost like some kind of vintage wheel gun, like maybe an old H&R top break or ever some kind of Baby Dragoon revolver.

    • If you study the picture above that one, where the innocent, unarmed victim is wearing a dark hoodie, the handgun appears to be a nickel-plated top-break self-eject .32 or.38 with a T-shaped barrel rib–modeled after an S&W DA from the 1880s. It could be any variety of the numerous copies by everyone from H&R to Eibar of Spain.
      And why are these kinds of photos often taken in bathrooms?

  26. Having had the pleasure of dwelling in close proximity to folks like this now room temperature hood rat and his brethren; if he ditched his gun during the chase there’s a good chance someone grabbed it. Hood denizens will not turn down a free gun or a chance to screw the cops.

    The police really need to slow roll every call in the hood. The desired culture of these communities is criminality, there’s no reason we should deny them their chosen lifestyle. Let the residents sort it out themselves, the cops can show up to do the paperwork and cart away the bodies.

  27. Both pictures are “reality”. He posed for both. Yes, I too am tired of the false narrative that all black males are poor victim’s of societal ills and that they are working towards a better life – but like has been said with other shootings let’s just give it sometime and let the facts come in. Yes, Kajuan could just be a Chiraq thug or he could be the victim of a trigger happy cop. Does either possibility sound far-fetched?

    The racial/ethnic make-up of the cop should not matter but it does. Is he/she black? Half were in the Freddy Gray ordeal but that did not stop the SJWs.


  28. There is not enough information in the article to make the judgement. The police officer would need to show that he reasonably believed the suspect was a threat to the officer or others. For the social media posts to be reliant, the police officer would have needed to have seen them and recognized Mr. Rayes. Monday morning quarterbacking won’t bring Mr. Rays back, exonerate or convict the police officer. What I do know is that a young man died in Chicago. I can only hope a through investigation is able to ascertain the circumstances of Mr. Rayes death and bring criminal charges if supported by evidence and the relevant criminal codes. There is nothing to sensationalize here.

  29. You can label me anyway you want, but name me one great black civilization, just one? What if every white person was gone tomorrow from the United States, what would this country look like in a month? What if every other race was gone tomorrow, what would the country look like then? Decide for yourselves, but its obviously about time to start taking out the trash…..

    • Ethiopia? Mali Empire?

      There was no shortage of promising civilizations in Africa, just as there were no shortage of them in the Americas. But they were all lagging from Europeans and Asians by at least a few hundred years each (for the reasons, see “Guns, Germs and Steel”), especially in terms of technology; and that proved fatal when the two came in contact.


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