#### thebigthinkg

##### Active member

**Background**

**The cosmological constant problem**

As different fields of studies like Cosmology (involving gravitation and relativity theories), Quantum Electro dynamics (QED), Quantum Field Theory (QFT) emerged in their own ways, their contribution to each others also started emerging. A case in point was cosmological constant.

Einstein devised the cosmological constant (whose units are cm-2 ) from a cosmology (Gravitation and Relativity) perspective to balance the curvature of space and define a static universe. Einstein abandoned the concept after Hubble's 1929 discovery that all galaxies outside the Local Group (the group that contains the Milky Way Galaxy) are moving away from each other, implying an overall expanding universe.

From 1929 until the early 1990s, most cosmology researchers assumed the cosmological constant to be zero.

Since the 1990s, several developments in observational cosmology, especially the discovery of the accelerating universe from distant supernovae in 1998 (in addition to independent evidence from the cosmic microwave background and large galaxy redshift surveys), have shown that some ‘dark energy’ could be accelerating the expansion of Universe and it could contribute to 68% of the mass–energy density of the universe.

This has brought back the cosmological constant to significance once again. The cosmological constant is now seen as contributing to some kind of dark energy or vacuum energy density. This leads to the current standard model of cosmology known as the Lambda-CDM model, which provides a good fit to many cosmological observations as of 2016.

The idea that cosmological constant could be related to some vacuum energy density actually started taking root in Cosmology.

Cosmologist G. Lemaitre explained that “Everything happens as though the energy in vacuo would be different from zero. In order that absolute motion, i.e. motion relative to vacuum, may not be detected, we must associate a pressure to the density of energy of vacuum”.

This thought process has further ingrained and has taken root and has become the mainstream understanding. Currently this is essentially the meaning of Einstein’s cosmological constant. A non-zero vacuum energy that kind of cancels out the motion relative to vacuum.

At the same time, Quantum Field theories started talking about energy in vacuum. In the quantum field theories (QFT’s) which underlie modern particle physics, the notion of empty space has been replaced with that of a vacuum state, defined to be the ground (lowest energy density) state of a collection of quantum fields. A peculiar and truly quantum mechanical feature of the quantum fields is that they exhibit zero-point fluctuations everywhere in space, even in regions which are otherwise ‘empty’ (i.e. devoid of matter and radiation). These zero-point fluctuations of the quantum fields, as well as other ‘vacuum phenomena’ of quantum field theory, give rise to an enormous vacuum energy density ρvac.

From observations of solar system, galactic and large-scale cosmology there is an upper bound for the value of cosmological constant (10 -56 cm-2 ) and the related vacuum energy density is

|ρvac| < 10−29 g/cm3 ∼ 10−47 GeV 4 ∼ 10−9 erg/cm3

By contrast, theoretical estimates of various contributions to the vacuum energy density in QFT exceed the observational bound by at least 40 orders of magnitude. This large discrepancy constitutes the cosmological constant problem

The vacuum energy density can also be calculated from Quantum Electro Dynamics (QED), which is the quantum theory of electromagnetic interactions. In QED the zero-point energy depends on the electromagnetic field interaction with other fields and depends on frequency scale and time-scales we deploy. Assuming we integrate the vacuum energy density upto ‘planck scale’, the vacuum energy density from QED perspective is

ρ vplanckac ∼ (1019 GeV ) 4 ∼ 1076 GeV 4 ∼ 10114 erg/cm3

These two show a difference of more than 120 orders of magnitude, which is too huge to reconcile. This also constitutes the cosmological constant problem.

Essentially the cosmological constant problem arises from the low value of energy density as computed from cosmology observations and very high values of energy density as in quantum theories such as QFT and QED.

The cosmological constant problem arises because of the understanding that the low value cosmological constant that was computed in Einstein’s equation from relativity perspective, which indicates some repulsive force which kept the matter in the space from getting crunched due to gravitation is vacuum energy density and it is same as the energy of the vacuum which gives rise to particles and anti-particles and essentially all matter of the Universe.

The Coincidence problem

The Coincidence problem

Another problem that Quintessence model poses is the problem of coincidence.

Universe was known to have expanded greatly during cosmic inflation closer to time of Big Bang. Post that the expansion had slowed down. But again we see that Universe’s expansion has accelerated.

So the question is are we ‘born’ at a special time in which Universe has started accelerating again..? Is that a coincidence..?

Both of these can be answered if we look at them from the vedic ‘prism’. Let's see how these are addressed in the Vedas, in the next few blogs.

The Quintessence Model as aligned to Rg Veda Mandala 10.165

The Quintessence Model as aligned to Rg Veda Mandala 10.165

The model I am explaining here is based on the Quintessence model, but not precisely.

The very first understanding that one gets out of vedas is, Universe is all just 'Rudra'. There is nothing other than Rudra in this Universe. There is nothing other than force-fields in this Universe. All matter, particles, energy, mass we see are manifested in these force-fields.

There are eleven Rudras and hence eleven force-fields. One of these force-fields is the 'scalar' force-field of Higgs, which gives mass to all particles. Particles themselves arise in a 'Dirac-fermi' field when there is sufficient energy in the field. Such particles when they interact with Higgs scalar field, they acquire mass. These are as according to science. The Higgs field is the Maha-Vishnu.

How do different force fields acquire energy..?

Here is where I propose there is a energy field (probably scalar like Higgs field) which interacts with other force-fields and gives them 'energy'. (like Higgs field giving them mass).

Energy (Shiva) and Mass (Vishnu) are physical properties of these force-fields (Rudras). Energy (Shiva) is characterized by Motion/Momentum (Shakti). Vishnu (mass) is characterized by Impediment to Motion (Lakshmi). More on this later..

The current quintessence models propose a dark energy scalar field that expands the Universe. I slightly modify it. I propose a energy scalar field that provides energy to all force-fields and is also the dark energy that expands the Universe. This field is what I call nRRti Rudra.

My quintessence model proposes a Scalar field (nRRti Rudra) that provides Energy (Shiva) to all other fields. Its kinetic energy depends on the rate of oscillations in the field strength; its potential energy depends on the interaction of the scalar field with other fields of matter like the dirac-spinor field.

Kinetic energy is the energy possessed from the ‘movement’ of energy (like an arrow or missile) from the scalar field. This kinetic energy of the scalar field couples with other fields and becomes the potential energy of other fields.

The difference between the potential and kinetic energies create a pressure. This pressure drives the field itself to expand or collapse. When Kinetic energy of the scalar field is more as in the beginning of the Big-Bang, the pressure is positive or the force exerted by the scalar field is attractive like gravitation.

The kinetic energy of scalar field transfers to other fields (this transfer is called agni). Due to its kinetic (moving nature, which is described as arrow/missile with wings) it interacts with other fields like Strong force field. The strong force field mediated by gluons interact with fields such as dirac-fermi field and produce quarks and anti-quarks (or matter particles). More and more energy is transferred from the scalar field (called agni) to other fields. More and more particles are created.

At the beginning, the kinetic energy of the scalar field is more than the potential energy in its interaction with other fields such as strong force field. The pressure is positive and force exerted by scalar field is attractive. The attractive force of the scalar field helps in forming large structures like galaxies, stars etc..

These new particles and antiparticles are said to be sent to the residence of Yama (essentially acquire distinct electric charges, positive and negative) and hence become susceptible to mrtyu (annihilation and deccay).

When more and more matter particles are produced, the Universe moves from being energy dominated to being matter dominated at some point of time.

This results in kinetic energy of scalar field becoming less than the potential energy of scalar field (that depends on interaction with other force-fields). This leads to a negative pressure from the scalar field which starts driving matter away (compared to Gravity which is an attractive force). This leads to expansion and also acceleration of expansion of Universe.

The above is the Quintessence model (aligned to what is in the Rg vedic sloka 10.165) which assumes a field providing energy causing the expansion of the Universe.

This would explain the cosmological constant problem as well as coincidence problem. I will explain it after going through the Rg Vedic sloka 10.165.

Yama - The first mortal to have died

Yama - The first mortal to have died

Yama is the Charge. Yami is the charge Conjugate. Yama and Yami are ‘properties’ acquired by particles which leads them to ‘annihilation’ or ‘Mrtyu’ or decay. Yama or ‘the property of charge’ leads to Mrtyu/death.

Yama is called ‘VaivastAya’. Vivasvan is radiation of High Energy photons. . Vaivasta is one who is borne out of that radiation. Science says pair production happens out of High energy radiation or photons. The pair production involves a Charged and Charge Conjugate particle.

The process of pair production at High energies is Tvasta (which itself is EM radition, that is for later). Since charge and its conjugate comes out of pair production, Yama and Yami can also be said to be ‘made’ by Tvasta. In the early Universe that had high energy density, the photons were pair producing charge and charge conjugate particles of quarks and leptons depending on the energy levels.

The pair produced charge and charge conjugate particles then would annihilate each other and become High energy photons. The photons would again pair produce particles. This oscillation between pair production and pair annihilation was the feature of early Universe.

The first birth of matter that happened was with pair production and first ‘death’ of matter that happened in the early Universe was the pair annihilation.

Since Yama and Yami are the charge and its conjugated particles out of pair production (tvasta) and the particle annihilation is the first ‘mortality’ in the Universe, charge and charge conjugate are visualized as the first mortals to have died.. Hence Yama and Yami are said to be the first mortals who died.

In fact all the life and evolution in Universe is associated with flow of charges or creation of charged bondings and all the death that happens in the Universe are related to stopping of the flow of charges or breaking of these charged bonds. For eg., when a human being dies, it is the death of brain, whose electric signal (flow of charges) stops completely.

At classical level, Yama can also be looked at as 'ionization' (acquiring charge) by knocking of electrons or adding electrons to matter.

Birds - Energies (kinetic and potential) of force-fields

Birds - Energies (kinetic and potential) of force-fields

Energy can be Kinetic of Potential. When the ‘bird’ flies like ‘missle/arrow’ with wings, it is Kinetic Energy. Kinetic Energy is the energy by the virtue of motion/what they do/action. When it rests in its nest, it is potential energy. The Potential energy is by the virtue of position/where it resides/what is carried.

Various birds mentioned in Vedas are energies of force-fields. These are identified as ‘Su-parna’ which means ‘well leaved’ or ‘well feathered’ one. Well-feathered or well-leaved indicates high energy, whether it is potential or kinetic. Su-parna can be of two types. One is active and other is inert. The active one is kinetic energy. The inert one is potential energy.

Some of the Birds mentioned are:

- `Scalar field of dark Energy called nRRti
- The energy of this field is kapota (Dove). It is kinetic in nature as it moves or flies.
- The potential energy this field imparts to other fields as a bird settles in its nest is Zakuna

- Energy of Dirac-Spinor field from interaction with dark energy scalar field

The potential energy acquired by dirac-spinor and other fields, when they interact with the scalar field of dark energy (nRRti) is ulUka (owl), which is said to be the carrier of lakshmi. When fields acquire energy and manifest as matter particles (lakshmi is the wealth of matter particles), they go to the residence of Yama/charge and submit to death/mortality as charges can annihilate the mass and convert them to energy. For these reasons Lakshmi the wealth of matter particles is said to be riding on owl/ulUka (potential energy of scalar field nRRti).

Let's understand how Rg Veda Mandala 1 Hymn 165 which talks of nRRti explains almost what is in the 'quintessence model', as I explained above.

Just to reiterate, I have tweaked the conventional quitessence model, which talks of a field of dark energy expanding the Universe into a field that provides energy to all other fields and also expands/contracts the Unviersal spacetime.

-TBT