The Hunt Volitional Rifle: The Winchester Lever Gun’s Earliest Ancestor

Hunt Volitional Rifle (courtesy Cody FIrearms Museum)

When firearms buffs hear the names Samuel Colt, Horace Smith and Daniel Wesson, they think of both the gun designer and the manufacturers that bear their name . Ditto Oliver Winchester. Little known fact: the man behind the Winchester rifle didn’t begin his career in the firearms business. He was a shirt manufacturer. Furthermore, the lineage of the”Gun that Won the West” — the Winchester lever action rifle — predates Winchester’s involvement by almost a decade.

The Hunt Volitional Rifle (courtesy The Cody Firearms Museum)

The .54 caliber Hunt Volitional Rifle is the earliest direct ancestor of the Winchester lever action rifle. Walter Hunt of New York designed the long gun, applying for a patent on September 17, 1847. Almost two years later the U.S. Patent Office issued the paperwork. The Hunt Volitional Rifle’s most notable feature: its 12-round under-barrel magazine (a characteristic any lover of all things West knows well).

The Hunt Volitional Rifle was the second firearm to be patented with a tubular magazine; the Patent Office issued the first just six months prior. Because of its unusual design, the Hunt Volitional Rifle was difficult to manufacture. It never went into production. This is the only known example; a prototype.

Gun designer Lewis Jennings took Hunt’s magazine and improved on it with his Jennings Repeating Rifle, manufactured by Robbins & Lawrence. Horace Smith was hired to improve the Jennings Rifle; Smith worked with Daniel Wesson to patent the Smith & Wesson Magazine Pistol in 1854. In 1855, they sold their patent to Oliver Winchester. The rest, as they say, is history.


  1. avatar Nate in the land of townships says:

    Interesting tid bit of history. On an unrelated note, I’m learning how to shoot and buying my first handgun this week. 🙂 🙂 🙂

    1. avatar Tom in Oregon says:

      Good on ya Nate!
      Let us know what you get.

      1. avatar Nate in the land of townships says:

        An older nickel plated Taurus 82 in .38 special. Probably not the best choice, but I like it better than my 3 other options.

        1. avatar Ing says:

          Hey, if you like it well enough to use it and it goes bang when you need it to, then it’s definitely not a bad choice. And the beautiful thing about ‘Murica is that you don’t ever have to stop at just one. 🙂

    2. avatar Pascal says:

      Congrats and welcome to the club!

  2. avatar strych9 says:


  3. avatar Tom in Oregon says:

    What a neat looking rifle.
    I’d love to see a video of it in action.

    1. avatar Cliff H says:

      The sole extant version, and a prototype. The odds of ever seeing anyone put a live round through the thing are very long indeed.

      That said, a video showing how the rifle and action worked, even if it is not fired, would be interesting.

      1. avatar 16V says:

        Neat piece, interesting article. Thanks!

        Learn something new everyday.

      2. avatar Sunshine_Shooter says:

        Is Forgotten Weapons listening?

        1. avatar 16V says:

          I stumbled across that a few months ago, he does get some interesting items running through the auction house.

  4. avatar LarryinTX says:

    I’ll give you $20!

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